Season 2 Ep 2 - (A)Broad in Education: A U.S. Passport Is Your Key To The World.
00:07 This is Abroad In Education a podcast where I unpack the international suitcase by focusing on Edpats and their experiences within education. I'm your host Tiffany Lachelle.
00:29 Today's episode is going to talk about studying abroad this topic has It came to my mind the other day when I was at a store because I was checking out at the cash register and I had a conversation with one of the women that was helping me. And in the midst of this conversation she starts to mention her children and was basically like, Oh yes, I have a son who was in Germany and I have a daughter who is doing some service work in this country. And then my youngest daughter is over in Japan. And she tells me a little bit more about how her family basically lived in Japan for three years. And the way that she's talking, it just gives me this, this sense of, you know, travel was embedded in her experience.
01:18 I know that oftentimes travel can be something that comes off as, you know, for certain privileged people or you know, as a norm in certain people's experiences. But it really got me to thinking about, you know, what, what encouraged me to start traveling either to hear about how her family members are abroad and doing these things. So I ended up going down this reflective memory lane and I realized that my study abroad experience had such an impact on, you know, creating the trajectory of where I am now. And I kind of want to talk about that in this episode.
01:55 To begin, I'll tell you all a little bit about my study abroad experience. I actually studied abroad in, this was in 2007. Um, it was my junior year of college. And, um, I found this, this program called School for International Training, which is in Vermont. And I did this program called Education as an Agent for Social Change. So this was basically six weeks in South Africa and I was able to go to KwaZulu Natal, Durban, Johannesburg and Soweto. So for me, this experience, I mean, I still do not remember what it was that encouraged me to want to study abroad. It was almost as if it was placed in my mind. I visited the study abroad office on my campus, um, and I had a conversation with a woman and she's just like, oh, well, what are your interests? What are you interested in studying? I'll find a program for you. And this was the program that she found for me based on my interest in teaching. The way that S.I.T. sets these trips up and it's basically for all US students. So essentially it was a group of 12 of us. There were some students coming in from Duke, Indiana University, me from Northern Illinois. There was a girl from Cornell. And the, the demographics, I mean it was a good mix between um, you know, ethnicity, economic status.
03:21 I mean there was, there was a lot of representation in this group. But still as far as myself, I would say that I was one of the African Americans, but then also there were some biracial students there as well. And I'm, I'm specific to mention that because I went to South Africa and in the midst of going to South Africa, I did a lot of blending instead of contracting. And that's why my experience in South Africa with so meaningful for me, because being in a space where everyone looks like me. It was one of those things where people were shocked when I started talking. As if, you know, why are you talking like that? How come you're not speaking this language? I remember I went to the mall one day and um, I was there shopping and one of the, the women approached me and asked me if I needed help.
04:15 Now I was looking at some jeans and you know, they, their jeans are in the European sizes. So this is like, you know, size 27, 28 I don't, and I'm used to five, seven, nine. So I did need help. And this was a black woman who approached me and basically ask, you know, how could she help me? And I asked her in English and everything and then her colleague came up and was asking, you know, Oh, where are you all from this, this and this. And her response to me was, you know, oh, I thought you were a coconut talking to me in English. So I think it was, you know, one of those things where, you know, for us it's the Oreo black on the outside, white on the inside, you know, if we're black you need to be speaking to me in Zulu.
04:56 And she was surprised that I was speaking to her in English. Um, another experience, one of the hosts, every time we went into the villages, he would just, you know, come here, Tiffany, come and speak to her. And, and of course me not speak Zulu and me not speaking, you know, any of the languages. It would be, hey, how are you doing? How's everything going? And I mean the women would like hold their heads like, oh my goodness. Like why is she speaking that way? Why does she look that way? And of course to make the matters worse, I have micro braids, so I really did a lot of blending in this space. But what I noticed most because I did learn a lot of things about myself, but what I noticed most was the experiences that my colleagues are having. This was the first time that I was able to see white privilege and action.
05:48 I know we do a lot of talking about it in these like academic spaces and stuff, but my study abroad experience allowed me to actually witness it. And this was the stereotypical, you know, white woman, white man, you know, going into these very colonized spaces and being confirmed about their identity being confirmed about their privilege. Um, you know, basically having a vacation experience but then going to fix or you know, going to assist people to be better. And for me there were a couple of instances, um, it still breaks my heart. We ended up going to participate in this weekend service learning trip where we went into an area called Wentworth and they brought many of the leaders who will at least students that they identified as leaders to like a camp for a weekend. And in the midst of this camp, there were so many different activities that were planned, you know, um, it was a lot of cross cultural exchanges between like the US experience and then their experience.
06:55 And at the end we, I guess we were on like a minivan or something and we were on our way back, um, after this just jammed pack weekend. And a group of the white women students basically started bashing all of these students. Like, well, if these are the leaders in the community, they're really in trouble. Um, did you hear that story about such, you know, such and such or, you know, one of the things that truly breaks my heart. And, and these were high school students. We were college students and, and one of the, um, one of my colleagues basically said, and did you hear what that girl said about me? That little cunt. And I'm thinking, wow, you know, how, how is my experience this way and their experience is so different. So for me, that study abroad or at least engaging in this space where, you know, study abroad provided the opportunity, I not only learned about myself, I also learned about the experiences of other people as well.
07:56 Basically after the study abroad experience. And this is it, it was a six week program. So it wasn't much that was going on. But I mean, within the time I was exposed to a different culture, you know, many different languages. I'm watching other people's experiences. Um, I'm going through an emotional rollercoaster. And, um, after the experience, I, I go back to my university and there is no program that, you know, kind of brings us back and unfolds our experience. So we basically just go right into the class. And at this point I had declared black studies as my minor, and I still remember this day. So if it's in class and we were having a conversation, I forget what we were speaking about, but we were having a conversation about, um, our experiences and just talking about like, you know, what it felt like to be in that space.
08:49 And I remember I raised my hand and I, I, I basically explained to the class that, you know, I'm from, you know, what will be determined as a rural space. Um, it's not many spaces that I've been given to talk about blackness or being black or black people. And in the exact words, I said, you know, I come to a class like this and I see Martin Luther King on the wall and Stephen Biko and I just feel like I'm at home. And one of the students spoke over me and said, who is Stephen Biko? That's not Stephen Biko, that's Malcolm X. And for me, I had just came from this experience of being immersed in the South African, you know, culture and, and being in that space and, and I, I did not turn it off and this, these were, um, these were painted pictures. So, you know, someone had artist, an artist had painted these pictures, but for me, the picture of Malcolm x, I connected it instantly to Stephen Biko.
09:53 So the professors says trying to make it better. He's like, well, you know, Denzel Washington played Malcolm X and Stephen Biko. And I'm thinking, okay, that doesn't make it better. I'm embarrassed. And that was part of, you know, having to learn how to open up these open up and talking about blackness and my experiences and things. But especially from this study abroad experience, it, it basically opened my mind to the world. The reason why I want to talk about study abroad is because, you know, it's, it's one of those experiences that I realized had I not studied abroad, most likely I probably wouldn't be on the path that I'm on now. I truly believe that my experience with studying abroad is what encouraged me to end up teaching abroad. Um, actually after my study abroad experience, when I went back to finish up my undergraduate degree, um, my plan was to go to the Peace Corps.
10:52 After I finished up, I, I basically told all of my cooperating teachers, you know, my professors, yes, I'm graduating with a teaching degree, but I don't want to teach. I'm actually going to go to the peace corps and applying for the Peace Corps. It took me longer to finish the application than it did to get for me to get a job. So I ended up going to work. I did two years in the states, but while I was working in the, in the, in the small town that I was working in, the, my inkling to get back overseas, like it was like an itch. It was an itch and I had to scratch it just to be able to, you know, go back and do something. I didn't know what, I didn't know anyone who had, who had done like any type of work or who have worked abroad or who could walk me through that experience of being abroad. So I just kind of sat on it.
11:43 But what happens with study abroad is it, it becomes an experience that is privileged only to some. And the reason why this episode is focusing on study abroad is because a lot of African American students, or it's specifically students of color, do not participate in study abroad. And I find that study abroad is often the first experience for international engagement for students of color. And then also specifically African American students. Um, some of the, some of the guests that I've had on the podcast. One of the consistent themes is many of them before they got into their positions, as you know, teachers, counselors, um, whatever it is that they're doing abroad now. Many of them had some type of international experience before they went into that position. So it could have been study abroad. It could have been, you know, some type of international service trip hosted by their university.
12:45 And even one of the guests, her parents were in the military. So she said that her father would bring these, you know, different things back from abroad. And it just, it, it enhanced her interest to want to get abroad. So basically, you know, without this study abroad experience or without the experiences that we're having. So, so one of the reasons why I am, you know, focusing on study abroad is because it is a experience that a lot of students of color and specifically African American students, they really don't have the experience. Um, and, and there's a lot of research that kind of focuses on why and, and you know, what is the impact and all of these different things. So first I want to spend some time and kind of focused on, you know, what his study abroad and then I'll go into why study abroad matters. And then from that I'll, you know, kind of talk about the takeaways as far as why we should be focusing on this.
13:45 So study abroad. The the, the definition is very debatable and it really depends on who you're talking to because it's really not one definition and most of the time, most of the time, especially when I'm reading articles about study abroad, it's so funny to me that a lot of scholars, they will write, you know, 20 page articles about study abroad and never define what they're talking about. It's almost this assumption like when I say study abroad, you'll know what I mean. But study abroad is very fluid and it can definitely be encompassing of many different activities. But one of the definitions that I found, um, which basically comes from Purdue university, I think it's a great way of describing it in a general way.
14:33 They said that study abroad is defined as any of a number of arrangements by which a student completes part of their degree program through educational activities outside of the United States. Now when they're talking about this international engagement, that can be in the form of an internship, it can be in the form of conducting research. It can be in the form of service learning. It can be in the form of exchange, student exchange. Um, for me it was in the form of, um, a higher education institution that provides programs for their students. So there's so many different types of study abroad is not just one, but basically it's the act of, you know, having this, this, um, this international experience outside of the United States. And even when it comes to, you know, defining the timeline and everything, it's, it's very broad. So basically in 2004, the National Association for State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, they created a task force on international education.
15:38 And what they found was US citizens are relatively unaware and uninformed about international issues and world matters. So from this information, they decided that they wanted to start challenging university presidents to, to start using internationalization to inspire learning opportunities for students. So especially when I think about 2004, that's when I first started that. That was my first year in college and I felt like, you know, especially at NIU, there was this huge push for getting students to study abroad. But it was more of this, um, you know, this is something that will benefit your college experience. You know, not necessarily the way that it's talked about now. So I decided to go to Northern Illinois University's website. You know, where they're talking about study abroad. And it's funny to me because things have changed. When I go to the front page. Um, it basically says, and this is their marketing strategy, become a global citizen. Study abroad makes you highly desirable to employers and transforms the way you see the world.
16:51 Now that is enough to encourage me to want to participate. But it's definitely, I feel like it's changed because now it's looking more at what study abroad can do for you rather than, you know, what you basically gained from study abroad. But I mean, essentially I believe that study abroad, it does provide an opportunity for students to become more globally competent and just aware. Um, some people believe that the world is flattening and it's because, you know, we have access to a very internationalized space and rather it be us leaving or you know, people coming in. There's so much that we have to learn as far as this, you know, awareness and competency as far as other cultures. Um, and it does, I feel like study abroad does prepare you for a global job market. And speaking specifically of my experience, had I not studied abroad. I don't feel like I would have been prepared to teach abroad. So it definitely served as a jumping point for me to, you know, go into a global job market. Um, and it does, it helps us develop an understanding of other cultures. And what I would add to that is it also helps us develop an understanding of ourselves.
18:04 So now just kind of understanding a little bit of what study abroad is. Um, most of the time when we hear about study abroad, you are right behind it. You're going to hear about what's called the Open Doors Report. And this Open Doors Report is released from the Institute of International Education. And basically this is the organization that collects data on who is studying abroad, where are they going. Um, it, it lets us know, you know, all of these different data points that helps us to understand, you know, is study abroad successful. And it is a very surface way of talking about it. But I really want you all to hear some of these statistics.
18:48 So it says, um, as soon as you go to the Open Doors Report, one of the, the phrase or at least statements that you'll find first is, you know, study abroad has increased modestly over the past 10 years. And then it kind of talks about, you know, but students of color, um, are, are participating, you know, at a minimum rate. So going to the statistics from the 2015-16 school year. So during that year there was 325,339 study abroad participants. And from the 325,000, only 5.9% for African American. So 19,195 students that participated were African American. And then going into the demographics. I mean most of the time when people talk about study abroad, they, they claim it to be, you know, an an um, experience for white women. And just looking at the statistics, it kind of confirms because 71% of the study abroad participants were white.
19:55 And out of that 66% of them were women. So you know, it, it really does confirm that, not necessarily who had benefits, but who participates in study abroad. It is the majority white women. And then one of the things that I didn't realize is, um, these statistics not only take the numbers for the undergraduate experience, but it also collects numbers for the graduate experiences as well. But still, even with the statistics, 86% of the people who participate in study abroad are undergraduates. And it's mainly during those junior and senior years that a lot of them are engaging in these study abroad opportunities. So now that we know the numbers of who is participating, you know, the question is, well, where are they going? I really want to give you a second to think. So we have 71% white students, 66% majority women. Where do you think they are going mostly?
21:03 I'm sure you got it. Europe. And in 2015 (and 16) 54% of the participants went to Europe. And I'm, I'm honestly not surprised because that is definitely, um, a lot of the pushback that, um, study abroad is getting. It's, it's, you know, you have a certain demographic of students that are having a certain demographic experience and they're not learning anything. They come back and you know, they've had these extended vacations. Um, a lot of them are not, you know, going through any type of cross cultural exchanges. They kind of stay with their own. Um, there's a lot of different things that said about that. So I'm really not surprised to know that 54% of them are going to Europe. And then after Europe, um, 16% went to Latin America and the Caribbean and then 11% went to Asia. So though that is, you know, the highest percentages of where they are going.
22:03 And then also it tells us that 38% of the participants did a summer term, which could be more than eight weeks, two to eight weeks or fewer than two weeks. And then, um, 31% did one semester over. So it's always debatable about, you know, how long do you need to be in this space to be impacted by the space, you know, is two weeks long enough to spend in this, in this, you know, wherever it is that you're going, is two weeks long enough to actually be impacted by what's around you, for you to be able to engage and you know, these, these, um, hard to have conversations or experiences or feel like you're actually adapting to something new? Well, I don't know. And even research, you know, that's a question I don't know. So with these statistics, I mean it's, it's easy to say that there is a disproportionality in participation. And it's very problematic that, you know, especially when we talk about study abroad. It seems to be an experience where white students are participating in the majority.
23:05 But it definitely is an opportunity that I feel should be sought out by more students of color. And that kind of goes into, well, why does study abroad matter? Again, for me, had I not studied abroad, there is a high chance that I would not have engaged in my teaching abroad experience. And especially considering that, you know, I've already had some interviews with people who have also had this interaction, or at least this international interaction, you know, before they went into these international placements. It shows that, and this is not research-based, but I'm going to say it, having these study abroad experiences does broaden our minds. And obviously it's impacting people to not only just have that experience. But it impacts their lives to continue to have these global experiences and engage in these different, you know, rather it be a job abroad or whether it be, you know, participating in more international opportunities.
24:00 So study abroad is very impactful as far as even just widening our minds as far as what we have access to. So I highly recommend, um, you know, having the experience. One of the things that, that I always have to just put on the forefront is, um, especially when it comes to research that talks about why students of color and specifically African American students don't participate. There's a lot of things that are behind the background. I mean, just thinking about study abroad in itself. Well, one, it's a higher educational experience, right? So that means you have to be enrolled in a college, a university, like you have to be enrolled in some type of higher educational space to participate. And that's one thing. Access. The second thing is the cost.
24:50 I mean, I, I'll be honest, my study abroad experience, I'm a lay this on the table. Yeah. It was about $9,000. And Luckily for me, I was able to access financial aid. Now there are some, um, scholarships and different grants and different things that you can, you can pursue from your university. But this was a time where I didn't know anybody. I didn't know where the resources was. You know, I didn't know what types of, um, resources that I had available or who I could talk to or anything. I just kind of went and then when the financial aid came through and said, you know, this is enough to cover this, this, this, this, and this. A whole experience. I took it. Now fast forward to a couple of years at, well, no, this was actually last summer. Um, I participated in an international engagement where I went to Cameroon and Ghana and engaged in international internship completely free. And now that I know the resources to be able to know who was, who's offering these programs and how to access them, you know, it's a whole different experience with just preparing for it and researching it and knowing where the money is or the people who have done it before.
26:08 So even the way that I look at it now is different. I think it's very important. Especially if, and this is my thing. I mean, I'm, I'm hoping that you all are gaining something as far as the study abroad experience. And that if you know someone who is in higher education that you know, you're like, oh, you should definitely go and do this. You know, this is something that I think you would really enjoy. I really want to put on the table this conversation that was had during the opening address of the 43rd International Conference on Educational Exchange. Now this was in 1990 so it's a little dated, but Johnnetta, Cole basically, um, defined at least the conversation about why students of color participate or not in describing it as the four F's. So thinking about, you know, what keeps students of colors and African American students from participating, she broke it down to faculty and staff, finances, family and fear.
27:06 So she said the first F is faculty and staff. We, if, if we want more students of color to participate in study abroad, we have to bring in more faculty and staff that are advocating for these programs that are recruiting these program recruiting for these programs that are supporting the students who are engaging in these programs. Um, it definitely has to be a welcoming space and familiar space where you know, these, these, the faculty and staff is involved. It's not just, Oh, I heard about this at the, Oh, how do they call it? At the fair, the study abroad fair. It's, you know, what faculty and staff do I have a relationship with that I can talk about. I would talk to in order to prepare for this experience. The second F is finances. You know, when we think about finances, like I said, my study abroad, it was about $9,000. So yes, there are finances that are included. But coal basically talked about, you know, there's also a loss of time.
28:08 One of the reasons why she feels that students of color are not participating is because, you know, I cannot, I can't walk away from school for a semester. I have to graduate or I can't go away for six weeks over the summer, you know, I have to work. So not only is it a loss in, you know, just that, that income, but it's also time that has to be sacrificed because the most you'll get from these experiences are credits toward your degree. And hopefully it's credits toward, you know, your major classes. And that's definitely something that, you know, we have to be thinking about. And like I said before, there are many resources that are available at these universities as far as, you know, scholarships and grants. It's just making sure that we're talking to the right people as well.
28:56 The third F that she talks about is family and community. And I will tell you expecially from my experience when I came home and told my mom, it started with my mom. I came home, I told my mom, I said, you know, I'm thinking about studying abroad. Now, that was the first conversation. No response, nothing. It was just like, oh, that's cute. When I had a conversation, started to plan it, you know, started the financial aid process and I came back and I told her, I'm going to South Africa. Her response was, no, you're not. You're already five hours away from home. What makes you think I'm gonna let you leave the country? And you know, at that point I'm a little older, you know, smelling myself. It's one of those things where I'm just going to go, I don't have to ask for permission. And I politely advocated for myself and I said, you know, I'm going to go and this is how I'm going to do it.
29:49 And I told her about it and all she could do was just say, okay. But what she did was she told my grandmother. And my grandmother approached me and said, you're not going to South Africa. And in the midst of, you know, all of her concerns and everything, I mean, it wasn't to the point where it was like, you know, what we see on TV or you know, there's a lot of turmoil. It was just the fear of why would you want to do something like this? You know, how is it beneficial? Like, what, what is this? What is this? So I also politely advocated for myself and I said, you know, I'm still gonna go. And I went.
30:24 And especially when and for me and other people, when you come from a family, um, and no one in your family has engaged in these types of experiences, their response is coming out of fear. Their response is coming out of the unknown. They're response is coming out of, well what if you don't come back? Or you know, why is this something that's going to benefit you? So I get it. But let me think. And maybe 2015 when I was living abroad, my mother came to Abu Dhabi to visit me. So full fold. I have a woman who's telling me that I can't engage in this opportunity and then the opportunity that I'm engaging in, you know, she's being impacted in it from it. And it's basically like, you know, if, if Tiffany can do it, then I can do it too. And this woman was all over Abu Dhabi by herself just out here. So you know, although it is one of the reasons why, you know, we think that that students of color are not participating. It's not just the student that is impacted from these experiences.
31:29 And then the fourth, the fourth F is fear. And that just kind of goes along with, you know, there's this, from the students' perspective specifically. There's this fear of going abroad. There's this fear of, you know, I'm a, I'm a black American and the states, what is it going to be like being a black American in, you know, Paris, what is it going to be like being a black American? And you know, any country? Racism is real. We know it from where we live in a lot of these students are afraid to go and experience that in another country. So there's questions regarding their safety, you know, concerns about their identity. Like a lot of this is is just embedded with, I don't know what's on the other side of that. So knowing these four F's, it kind of allows us to start having conversations about well how can we change that mindset to start to encourage students to want to participate in these experiences.
32:25 So, I am definitely definitely an advocate for study abroad. And I really want it to, you know, be sure to put the conversation on, you know, my experience and you know, the fact that these opportunities are here. I kind of want to end the episode with this. One of the things that I have not talked about is the impact of study abroad. And I think this is just a question. It's a question and it's always based on the individual. Um, a lot of research as far as what they're hoping that you gain from study abroad is, you know, these, these different skills and attitudes that are supposed to make you more. Um, I'll say competent, but I think that word is kind of problematic in a sense too. But just to prepare you to be able to engage with people that are different from you, to be aware that other people you know have different ways of living in the world.
33:23 Um, it's not necessarily to put you in the most rural space in the world. And you know, have you go fetch water and cook over a fire and you know, get these survival skills. No, that's not what study abroad is about. It's basically allowing you to be able to see that there is a world around us. Now, one of the things that, and it's kind of going a segue, but one of the things as far as study abroad is it is only an opportunity for people that are in higher education. And just having that conversation in itself, we know that a lot of people don't have access to, to higher education. And what I'm noticing, and this is part of, you know, a lot of this, um, I'm gonna just call it the black travel movement. I see a lot of people who are creating essentially their own study abroad experiences and I've actually been able to engage in two of them myself.
34:18 So for me this isn't just toward the students, but this is also toward the adults because study abroad and its definition, or at least in the general definition that I've spoke about, it's only an opportunity what within a five year window. And that's basically looking at your freshman year to your junior, I'm sorry, to your senior year. Those of you who are on the five year plan like myself. And then especially like when you engage in that graduate experience, you know, that's still looking at a two year, maybe five year window. So maybe you have 10 years to engage in this study abroad experience. But for the people who have careers, right, for the people who are, you know, um, in these spaces where, you know, they, they're interested in travel, they're interested in seeing the world. There are people who are creating, you know what I'm saying, our study abroad experiences where they're basically taking groups of people, um, over to these countries and providing a guided experience that kind of looks at the self that kind of looks at culture, that looks at, you know, different aspects of what's going on.
35:24 So very similar to what you would experience in a study abroad program through higher education. There are people that are creating these experiences for people that are not. So specifically, I was able to participate in, um, with an organization. Well, I guess it's not an organization, but for those of you that are familiar with Travel Noire, I was able to go on one of their trips. Um, and we basically went to Amalfi coast and it was amazing. I mean it basically brought together a group of about 10 African and well I'll say black people from the states. And um, she took us over to this place and we were engaging in like the local with the locals and learning about lemon fields and we did a cooking class and you know, we had time to just, you know, get in our own space. I did a lot of meditating and it was, it was a perfect experience, which I would still compare to, you know, the study abroad experience.
36:22 So I'm saying that to say that even though, you know, study abroad is one space, there's also other spaces that are being created for those guided opportunities to be able to go out and experience the world. So kind of coming to the end. I basically am, am focusing on this episode because I want to encourage more students and specifically students of color and African Americans to participate in these opportunities. Participate. I mean, even if it's just go and stop by your study abroad office and just say hello and maybe, you know, it may spark a conversation with someone who, you know, maybe just found out about a program or you can just tell you about the opportunities. Especially at my university, I found that they have a, there's a program where they take the students to Germany and they're talking about, um, the Olympics and like bringing in all of these different facets of, you know, different spaces.
37:21 Even Paris, there's a black Paris, a study abroad opportunity where you're learning about, you know, some American history and how Americans left America and went over to Paris and all of these great things. So there's so much to be learned. Go to your study abroad, learning abroad office and start to find out more. Um, and then in addition, I want to encourage people to attend these trips. Like for me, it was Travel Noire. You know, if you're not in higher education. Um, another one that I can think of is, um, Up In The Air Life. There's a woman named Claire who are creating these week long trips where, you know, she basically provide the luxury experience. For those of you who are not backpackers, who enjoy, you know, laying your head in a boutique hotel, she create these experiences and guides you through them. So look, look, look, go out and study, go out and have these experiences in the world. Well this is the end of the study abroad episode and I have to thank you all for checking in as always, and I look forward to seeing you on the next one.
38:29 If you enjoyed the show, please subscribe wherever you get your podcasts. Let's keep the conversation. Join us in the Abroad in Education private group on Facebook. And for more information about the show, go to matriarchdm.com.
SIT: School for international training- https://studyabroad.sit.edu
Northern Illinois University Study Abroad: https://www.niu.edu/study-abroad/
Institute of International Education (IIE)- Open Doors Report: https://www.iie.org/Research-and-Insights/Open-Doors/Data
Johnetta Betsch Cole- 1991
Opening Address of the 43rd International Conference on Educational Exchange. The four F's- Faculty and Staff, Finances, Family, and Fear: https://forumea.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/The-New-F-Words.pdf
Coloring up Study Abroad: Exploring Black Students' Decision to study in China. Charles Lu, Richard Reddick, Dallawrence Dean and Veronica Pecero (2015): http://sites.edb.utexas.edu/uploads/sites/80/2016/06/Coloring-Up-Study-Abroad.pdf